<![CDATA['The Origin of Species' by Charles Darwin is one of the most important texts in modern science. A groundbreaking study of evolutionary biology, it put forward the idea of 'natural selection' as central to the development of species and life. Since its publication however, the book has constantly courted controversy, with the ideas being absorbed into religious and political debates as well as scientific. Central to Darwin's thesis is the notion that the minor variations within a species are connected to the much bigger variations between species. The nature of reproduction means that every species has the potential to achieve exponential growth. The only factors that prevent this infinite expansion of a species' population are competition for natural resources and geographical limitations. Darwin focused on the factors that determined which creatures survived and were able to reproduce. Darwin argued that organisms demonstrating variations advantageous to their environment and situation were the most likely to adapt and survive. The nature of inherited characteristics means that as these organisms reproduce, their offspring will inherit the same beneficial traits. Through time, the species best adapted to their environment will reproduce in greater numbers and thrive. Those that are poorly adapted will struggle for resources, reproduce less frequently, and ultimately become extinct. This is Darwin's theory of 'natural selection', a completely scientific explanation for the development of life on earth. Darwin's book came in for a great deal of criticism, both inside and outside the scientific community. He was not the first to suggest a theory of evolution. In 1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck had proposed a mechanism he called 'transmutation'. He believed that evolution occurred when species created their own adaptations to their environment, and that these acquired traits would then be inherited by their offspring. In Lamarck's system, the ancestors of Giraffe's stretched their necks to reach food in tall trees, and this gradual stretching of the neck was passed down through generations. The idea seems absurd now, but it was groundbreaking in that it suggested traits were inherited through a means other than 'intelligent design'. The broader scientific community constantly disputed evolutionary systems however, due to gaps in the fossil records. They argued that these gaps meant there was no evidence of the stages involved in the evolutionary process. The Origin of Species received even fiercer criticism from theologians. The idea of evolution directly contradicted the idea that a divine being had designed all life on earth. Critics rounded on what they viewed as the chaotic nature of evolutionary theory, arguing that the intricate complexities of the world could not have come about through such a chaotic system, but only through a divine plan. Even though breakthroughs in the study of DNA and genetic mutation have added further weight to Darwin's theory, the debate between evolution and creationism still wages today, showing the enormous cultural as well as scientific importance the book has. Beyond religion, the book also took on a political significance. Bizarrely, Darwin's idea of Natural Selection was embraced by politicians and philosophers long before it was accepted in the scientific community. Herbert Spencer coined the term 'survival of the fittest' to justify the laissez-faire governments that came to dominate politics towards the end of the nineteenth, and the early twentieth, centuries. Using Darwin's theories as a basis, Spencer and other Social Darwinists believed governments should reduce their involvement in society, allowing the strongest to prosper and the weakest to 'die out'. Even more shockingly, the ideas of Darwin were adapted by his cousin Francis Galton to develop the idea of Eugenics. This idea argues that the strongest and most successful in society should be encouraged to have more offspring, while the poorer and weaker should have their opportunity to reproduce removed. These ideas were applied in some of the darkest moments of the world's recent history, the atrocities of Nazi Germany, and the mandatory sterilisation campaigns of the United States. Darwin's book is a key scientific text, but more than that it should be treated as a historic event. It is a book that has had huge consequences in politics and society, as well as the scientific community. Its arguments are still the fundamental fuel for crucial debates to this day.
The Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection
Or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life Vol. 1 of 2Vol. 1 of 2
by Charles Darwin